Elucidating the genetic code

The cell therefore appeared to have a strategy for delivering large cargo to the lysosome.Further biochemical and microscopic analysis revealed a new type of vesicle transporting cellular cargo to the lysosome for degradation (Figure 1).

elucidating the genetic code-41

Yeast cells are relatively easy to study and consequently they are often used as a model for human cells.

They are particularly useful for the identification of genes that are important in complex cellular pathways.

Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and the autophagic process is involved in several conditions including cancer and neurological disease.

In the mid 1950's scientists observed a new specialized cellular compartment, called an " and functions as a workstation for degradation of cellular constituents.

2016-10-03 The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy This year's Nobel Laureate discovered and elucidated mechanisms underlying Thus,autophagy denotes "self eating".

This concept emerged during the 1960's, when researchers first observed that the cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in membranes, forming sack-like vesicles that were transported to a recycling compartment, called the for degradation.

Within this research field Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".

The proteasome efficiently degrades proteins one-by-one, but this mechanism did not explain how the cell got rid of larger protein complexes and worn-out organelles.

As the autophagosome forms, it engulfs cellular contents, such as damaged proteins and organelles.

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